New Study Finds Walnuts Improve Sperm Quality in Men

Research published in the recent issue of Biology of Reproduction Papers-in-Press reports that 75 grams (approximately 2.5 ounces) of walnuts consumed per day improved sperm vitality, motility, and morphology (normal forms) in a group of healthy young men between 21-35 years of age.

A healthy family starts with walnuts

Folsom, CA – (August 16, 2012) Research published in the recent issue of Biology of Reproduction Papers-in-Press reports that 75 grams (approximately 2.5 ounces) of walnuts consumed per day improved sperm vitality, motility, and morphology (normal forms) in a group of healthy young men between 21-35 years of age. These findings are of particular interest to the 70 million couples worldwide who experience sub-fertility or infertility. In fact, 30 – 50% of these cases are attributed to the male partner, and in the United States the prevalence of men seeking help for fertility is estimated at ~3.3 – 4.7 million.1

This research suggests that walnuts provide key nutrients that may be essential in male reproductive health. According to Professor Wendie Robbins, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N., who led the research at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Nursing, "the positive finding of walnuts on sperm may be a result of their unique nutrient profile." Walnuts are the only nut that are an excellent source of alpha-linolenic acid2 (ALA) – the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid, and this study reported higher amounts of ALA provided by walnuts correlated with less frequent aneuploidy or abnormal cell sperm chromosome numbers which can result in genetic abnormalities such as Down syndrome.

In addition to ALA, walnuts have high antioxidant content, along with numerous micronutrients that Dr. Robbins thinks may work together synergistically. Co-investigator and UCLA Associate Professor of Medicine and Nursing Dr. Catherine Carpenter believes that "these findings are not surprising when you look at the nutritious content of walnuts, however the results are amazing considering the impact they might have on men of all ages, including older men, and men with impaired fertility."

Throughout history, food has been linked with human reproductive success; however most of the emphasis has been on the maternal diet and very little focus has been given to the paternal diet. According to Dr. Robbins, science is suggesting that a father's diet not only impacts fertility, but can also influence the health of the child and future generations. Citing a review of the science in this area, Dr. Robbins commented that, "diet is not just maternal territory anymore."3 It appears the nutrition status of fathers can be passed down transgenerationally and affect the health of generations to come. "Healthy diet and nutrition are essential for reproductive health," commented registered dietitian and father Milton Stokes. Based on this research, he would advise his male clients trying to have children to include walnuts in their diet on a daily basis to promote healthy offspring.

Improvements in cardiovascular risk factors and endothelial function from walnuts are well documented. The young men eating walnuts in the study conducted by Dr. Robbins experienced improved blood lipid profiles which reinforces these previous studies and provides one more reason to include walnuts in the daily diet.

This randomized, parallel two-group dietary intervention trial evaluated the effect of 75 grams of walnuts/day on semen quality. The study included 117 healthy young men who routinely eat a Western-style diet. Approximately half consumed the 75 grams of walnuts per day for 12 weeks, while the remaining half served as the control group. After 12 weeks, compared to the control group, the walnut group experienced improvement in sperm vitality, motility, and morphology – key components in male fertility.

For more industry information, health research and recipe ideas, visit www.walnuts.org.

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Media resources available:
Full study access
High resolution photography
B-roll
Walnut recipes utilized by study participants:
Walnut Coated Smart "Fried" Chicken
Spicy Walnut Bean Dip
Mac & Cheese Makeover
Honey-Chili Spiced Walnuts
Brilliant Chili Topped with Walnuts
Awesome Banana Walnut Shake
Tropical Walnut Smoothie
Smart Spaghetti & Meatballs with Tomato Sauce

Expert interviews are available upon request:
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Wendie Robbins, Ph.D., R.N, F.A.A.N., UCLA Professor; Study Author
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Catherine Carpenter, Ph.D, M.P.H, UCLA Associate Professor of Medicine and Nursing; Study Co-Author
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D. Milton Stokes, M.P.H., R.D., C.D.N., Previous national media spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association); Owner of One Source Nutrition, LLC
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Dr. Michael Roizen, Chief Wellness Officer, Cleveland Clinic
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Penny Kris-Etherton, Ph.D., R.D., FADA Pennsylvania State University Distinguished Professor of Nutrition; Immediate Past President of National Lipid Association

California Walnut Commission
The California Walnut Commission, established in 1987, is funded by mandatory assessments of the growers. The Commission is an agency of the State of California that works in concurrence with the Secretary of the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). The CWC is mainly involved in health research and export market development activities.

Non-Discrimination Statement
The California Walnut Commission (CWC) prohibits discrimination in all programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance programs. Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact the CWC offices at (916) 922-5888. To file a complaint of discrimination, write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410, or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). CWC is an equal opportunity employer and provider.

The California Walnut Commission offices are located at 101 Parkshore Dr., Ste. #250, Folsom, CA 95630

*More research is needed to determine if adding walnuts to the diet will improve birth outcomes for men within fertility clinic populations or in the general population.

[1] Anderson JE, Farr SL, Jamieson DJ, Warner L, Machaluso M. Infertility services reported by men in the United States: national survey data. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:2466-2470.

[2] Please note: One ounce of walnuts provides 18g of total fat, 2.5g of monounsaturated fat, 13 g of polyunsaturated fat, including 2.5 grams of alpha linolenic acid - the plant based omega-3; 2g of fiber; 4g of protein, 3.68 mmol/28 g of antioxidants. (http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/cgi-bin/list_nut_edit.pl)

[3] Nair KS, Irving BA, Lanza IR. Can dietary nitrates enhance the efficiency of mitochondria? Cell Metab. 2011 Feb 2;13(2):117-8.